Month: December 2019

Civil partnerships Exploring the financial benefits
ArticlesFinanceWealth Management

Civil partnerships: Exploring the financial benefits

Civil partnerships: Exploring the financial benefits

In October 2018, former Prime Minister Theresa May announced that the law would be changed to allow mixed-sex couples in England and Wales to enter civil partnerships. As of 2 December 2019, mixed-sex couples are now able to register their intent to enter a civil partnership, with the first ceremonies due to take place on 31 December 2019.

In recent years there has been a noticeable shift towards couples choosing to cohabit as opposed to entering into marriage. In fact, cohabiting couples continue to be the fastest-growing family type, with data from the
Office for National Statistics indicating that marriages between men and women recently hit the lowest rate on record. It remains to be seen whether the option to enter a civil partnership will influence the cohabiting trend. 

Those in mixed-sex civil partnerships will benefit from the same rights as married couples. The key difference is that a civil partnership is often free of any religious connotations and ideas of ownership and control – making it an attractive alternative for those who wish to legally recognise their relationship without aligning to a specific religion or tradition. 

Contrary to common belief, couples who live together are not entitled to the same protection or tax breaks as married couples and until now, couples who were opposed to marriage had no other option than to cohabit. Undoubtedly, the ability to legally recognise a loving and committed relationship between two people will always be the main motive for entering into a civil partnership.  Yet, there are several other reasons why couples may decide to legally formalise their union, one of which being the often-substantial financial perks which arise on the death of one of the civil partners.

From an income tax perspective, civil partners are entitled to the same income tax allowance as married couples. Often known as marriage tax allowance, if one lower earning partner is not utilising their entire personal allowance (£12,500 for 2019/20) they can transfer up to £1,250 of it to the higher earning partner, making a saving of £250 a year.

Similarly, from an inheritance tax perspective, civil partners will benefit from a complete exemption and the surviving partner will not need to pay any inheritance tax should they inherit the first to die’s estate. The surviving civil partner can also effectively double the amount that they can leave to family and friends on their death without having to pay inheritance tax, by transferring the first to die’s unused nil rate band. Should the first partner leave their entire estate to their surviving partner, it is possible to combine the nil rate bands – meaning that when the second partner dies an amount of £650,000 can be passed on tax-free. The same rules apply to the newer residence nil rate band and consequently, civil partners could ultimately benefit from a combined inheritance tax free allowance of up to £1million as of 6 April 2020 (subject to certain restrictions).

Civil partners can also inherit their partner’s tax-free ISA allowance, equal to the value or balance of any ISAs held by the first to die, by making use of the Additional Permitted Subscription (APS). This approach ensures that the tax-efficiency of the deceased’s ISA, which may well have been saved together by the couple, is not lost when transferred to the surviving partner.

Correspondingly, while the transfer of capital assets between cohabitees remains subject to capital gains tax on any gain in value they may have accrued, civil partners and spouses benefit from the fact that these transactions become tax neutral. This can present many benefits for civil partners, enabling them to manoeuvre funds and assets between them without the danger of generating an immediate charge to capital gains tax.

From a pension perspective, there are also tangible benefits to being in a civil partnership as both private and occupational pension schemes must offer the same rights to civil and married partners. Additionally, it may also be possible for a surviving partner to claim a higher state retirement pension, based on the deceased partner’s national insurance contributions. 

It is however important to remember that, just like marriage, there will be several administrative tasks to take care of when entering into a civil partnership. Any existing wills that may have been prepared before the partnership was recognised will be voided by the partnership itself and new wills should be drafted as soon as possible.

Equally, it is important to think about the assets that both parties will be bringing to the partnership and how they would be split in the event of the relationship breaking down. Those considering entering into a civil partnership should seek advice as to the suitability of preparing a prenuptial agreement to ensure that the intentions of both partners are recorded.

All couples, regardless of the legal status of their relationship, should consider their estate planning opportunities and how they can take advantage of sensible financial planning strategies to safeguard their estates for each other and their wider families. Ultimately, the extension of the law to allow mixed-sex couples to enter civil partnerships presents cohabiting couples with far greater flexibility and autonomy, while equally offering an opportunity to secure financial protection.

 

Matt Parr is an associate in the private client team at law firm, Shakespeare Martineau

 

What is General Liability Insurance
Insurance

What is General Liability Insurance?

What is General Liability Insurance?

In business, as well as in life, accidents happen. The problem is, when you’re running a business, accidents can open you up to liability, and if you’re not adequately covered, it can really cost you.

This means that general liability insurance is an essential part of running a business because it protects you in many important situations. If you don’t have general liability insurance, you open yourself up to being sued by members of the public in the case of an accident and you will be responsible for the costs.

So, what exactly does general liability insurance protect you against?


Damages Towards Third Parties

General liability insurance for small business is there to protect you from the basic risks your business faces. It covers you against damages to third parties, but not damages incurred by yourself, your employees, or to your equipment or tools.

Say you’re working on a ladder and you drop a tool which hits a passer-by on the head and injures them. The injured person is entitled to sue you for their medical costs. If you weren’t covered, then you would have to pay them out of your own pocket, but if you’ve got general liability insurance, the insurance company will take care of it.


A Legal Obligation

In some states, it is a legal obligation to have general liability insurance. Authorities want to see that members of the public are protected when they interact with your business, and insurance is one way of guaranteeing that.

If a business is not insured and gets sued, there’s no guarantee they have enough money to pay, this is why many authorities make general liability insurance a requirement for getting a business permit. It means they know that members of the public will get the money they are owed because your company is covered.


Required for Some Contracts

Even if general liability insurance isn’t required by law, many companies will only do business with you if you have the right insurance. Many contracts will stipulate your need for basic insurance, and you won’t be able to win those contracts unless you’re properly covered.

For other companies, employing the services of another company that isn’t insured opens them up to greater risk, and naturally, they want to avoid this. Your insurance might be a small detail, but it can make all the difference when you’re competing for certain jobs.

Allows You to Focus on the Things You’re Good At

You want your business to focus on doing the things it’s good at without having to worry about what happens if something goes wrong. Having the right general liability insurance means you can get on with the job, knowing you’re protected if something should happen.

With the right provider, arranging your general liability insurance is quick and simple, and you can get a quote that’s tailored to your business needs. Finding the right insurance isn’t difficult, but the benefits are clear to see.

Focus on growing your business, without having to worry about whether you’re properly protected by your insurance.

insurance cost
Cash ManagementInsurance

Five Ways To Save Money On Fuel This Christmas

insurance cost

Five Ways To Save Money On Fuel This Christmas

As all motorists will know, fuel prices are one of the many hidden costs of owning a car, and with fuel prices set to reach a six-year high, now is the perfect time for motorists to start thinking about how to get the most out of their tank.

To help motorists cut costs over the festive period, the UK’s leading car parts provider, Euro Car Parts has shared their top five ways to save fuel by driving more efficiently.

 

  1. Drive at one speed through speed bumps

Some driving styles can mean extra fuel is used when driving over speed bumps, and learning how to properly tackle them could save motorists a lot of money. 

Motorists can avoid any unnecessary fuel consumption by driving at a constant speed between bumps. Accelerating or braking too often in between speed bumps is when most fuel is used. 

 

  1. Don’t overfill your tank

It might be common knowledge that carrying excess weight reduces fuel efficiency, but did you know that overfilling your tank can actually make your car less efficient?

Although it seems counter-intuitive, brimming your tank will lead to extra fuel being used to transport the extra weight, and by only filling it up to half full you can cut extra weight and save money in the process. 

 

  1. Managing your revs

Most drivers barely look at the RPM (revolutions per minute) count when changing gear and rely on the sound or ‘feel’ of the engine. However, in doing so, you could be over-revving without even knowing, and wasting precious fuel with each gear change.

The most fuel-efficient RPM to change up a gear is 2,500 for a petrol car and 2,000 for diesel. So next time you’re changing gear keep an eye on the revs count, stick to that number and the pennies you’ll save will soon stack up.

Additionally, try to avoid dropping your revs too low, as this could cause unnecessary strain on the engine and waste fuel. Staying above 1,500 revs in petrol and 1,300 in diesel cars should comfortably avoid this.

 

  1. Slow down on high-speed roads

Driving at high speeds down dual carriageways and motorways means your engine is operating at a higher RPM than it is on slower roads. 

However, by simply slowing down a little on those fast roads you could end up saving a lot of money. The most efficient speed to drive at is between 55-65mph, and driving at 70mph compared to 80mph could save you 25% more fuel.

 

  1. Turn your engine off

It might seem obvious, but it’s worth remembering that keeping your engine idle whilst stationary and not using your car still burns fuel.

Leaving your car running on a cold winter’s morning, or keeping the engine on whilst sat in stationary traffic, wastes a lot of unnecessary fuel. If you know you’re going to be stationary for some time, it’s a good idea to turn off the engine to conserve your petrol or diesel.

Chris Barella, Digital Services Director at Euro Car Parts, said: “Driving more economically can save a lot more money than drivers may realise. By following these tips not only are you kinder on your wallet, but you’re also helping to cut down on unnecessary emissions”.

For more information on driving efficiently and saving fuel visit during the winter months visit: https://www.eurocarparts.com/blog/top-5-winter-driving-tips

divorce
Family OfficesHigh Net-worth IndividualsReal Estate

Divorce: Jurisdiction and Financial Relief Applications

divorce

Divorce: Jurisdiction and Financial Relief Applications

By Stephanie Kyriacou, associate in the family team at law firm, Shakespeare Martineau.

Many high-net-worth individuals (HNWI) lead truly international lifestyles, travelling the world, owning multiple residences and holding assets all across the globe. However, whilst this internationally-mobile way of living certainly has its benefits, for couples navigating the emotional process of divorce, dealing with multiple legal jurisdictions can often cause issues, particularly if one side of the divorcing party has been unfairly treated by the foreign courts.

Luckily, if an individual believes that they have suffered financial hardship as a result of a financial order in a foreign jurisdiction, there may be an avenue which they can pursue to balance the scales, provided by the English and Welsh courts. The UK’s legal system has long been considered one of the most fair and agreeable around the world in terms of settling financial matters upon divorce, and there is a reason why London itself is known as the ‘divorce capital of the world’.

Sadly, the foreign courts are often not as generous as their English and Welsh counterparts and the disparity between the sums awarded can often result in extreme financial hardship for spouses who get the raw end of the deal.

This access to financial relief in the UK revolves around Part III of the Matrimonial and Family Proceedings Act 1984 (MFPA 1984). This act allows spouses who have been divorced overseas, and who have a proven connection to the UK, to access financial remedy in the UK, if they have been treated unfairly by foreign courts and have exhausted all avenues to correct that unfairness in that overseas court.

However, whilst this piece of legislation can offer a lifeline to those individuals who have not received adequate financial provision in an overseas jurisdiction, there are a number of criteria which need to be met before an application can be made under Part III of the MFPA 1984. The application itself is a two-stage process and the applicant must first apply for permission (leave) to make the application. The factors the court will examine when determining whether to allow an application to proceed to the second stage can be found in sections 15-16 MFPA 1984. If the applicant is successful at the first stage, they will proceed onto the second stage, whereby they will go on to make the substantial application for financial remedy.

When determining whether to make an order, the court will base its decision on the connection that both parties to the marriage have with England and Wales, and with the foreign court, as well as any financial benefit which the applicant or a child of the family has or will receive as a consequence of the foreign divorce. Other factors which will be considered include any rights that the applicant has, or has had, to apply for financial relief from the other party under the foreign court – including reasons why they may not have done – as well as the availability of any property in England and Wales and the extent to which an English order will be enforceable, along with the elapsed time since the foreign divorce.

Whilst putting the wheels in motion as soon as possible after the foreign divorce has been granted is preferable, the case of Z v Z [2016] EWHC 911 is authority that even with a five-year delay, a court will still consider an application if the other criteria are met.

Whilst the requirements for making at Part III application may seem quite complex, at face value they centre on being able to evidence a strong link to the UK, either through residency or assets. The case of Agbaje v Agbaje [2010] UKSC 13 is the leading authority in this area and a provides a good illustration of how a Part III application for financial relief can be made, and what the courts will be considering when choosing whether to grant an application. In this case, the husband and wife were Nigerian and had been married for 38 years, with assets totaling circa £700,000, much of which were tied up in two London properties. All five of their children were born in London and the couple had spent large chunks of their life in England. Despite the wife living in London, the husband applied for a divorce in Nigeria and his wife was awarded £86,000 worth of property assets in Lagos, and £21,000 as lump sum maintenance payment. Not happy with this financial award, the wife issued proceedings under Part III of the MFPA 1984 and was awarded 39 percent of the couple’s total assets, allowing her to carry on her life in London.

This is a relatively common situation which is experienced by a large number of the spouses of HNWIs, but should give hope that in the event of hardship or mistreatment in divorce proceedings handled by a foreign court, there is a safety blanket offered by the MFPA 1984. Whilst many high-net-worth individuals will have factored pre-nuptial agreements into their marriages, which include clauses dictating where they would like their divorce heard in the event of a relationship breakdown, some will not, and it is those who the English and Welsh legal system supports through this channel.

engineering
FinanceTax

UK Engineering Companies Are Potentially Missing Out On £10 Billion Of R&D Funding Each Year

engineering

UK Engineering Companies Are Potentially Missing Out On £10 Billion Of R&D Funding Each Year

 

Engineering companies in the UK are potentially missing out on over £10 billion of R&D funding each year, new research has revealed.

The study[1], commissioned by innovation specialists MPA for Advanced Engineering 2019, found that one in five (21%) innovation active engineering firms are not taking advantage of the government’s R&D Tax Credit scheme, which allows companies to claim back up to 33p for every £1 spent on R&D activity.

On average, engineering companies invest £386,000 a year on R&D activity, meaning they are potentially able to claim £100,360 in funding[2]. With over 100,000[3] UK engineering firms not claiming, despite describing their company as innovation active, a staggering £10.2 billion is going unclaimed each year.

Reasons for not claiming the funding vary, but the most common answer given by engineers is that they don’t believe their companies are eligible (10%).

However, the research revealed that many engineering companies probably qualify without them realising. Some examples of indicative qualifying activities are, if your company develops new processes to improve efficiency, quality or performance; overcome unplanned technical difficulties or create bespoke solutions for clients.

Two-thirds (67%) of workers think that their firms are ‘innovation active’, which is the most accurate indicator that a company is eligible for the R&D Tax Credit scheme. Despite this, only a third (37%) say that their companies claim the available funding.

Another barrier blocking engineers from claiming is a lack of awareness about the initiative. Nearly a quarter (24%) of the surveyed engineers who aren’t claiming admitted that they didn’t even know that the scheme exists. Even among those who think they are innovation active, one in fourteen (7%) said that they were completely unaware of R&D tax credits.

While many are yet to take advantage of the scheme, engineering companies in the UK are planning on investing heavily in research and development. Over the next year, over one in five (22%) businesses in the industry are planning on spending over £1 million on innovative projects.

Nigel Urquhart, Senior Technical Analyst at MPA, said: “Engineering companies in the UK are respected all over the world for their quality and innovation, but a worryingly low number of them are claiming the R&D funding they are entitled to.

“Our research has highlighted that more work needs to be done to raise awareness of the R&D Tax Credit scheme, as these innovative companies could save themselves hundreds of thousands of pounds. This money could then be reinvested to fund further innovation, which would ensure UK engineering stays at the forefront of the industry.”

 

To see whether your company is eligible for the R&D Tax Credit scheme, visit:  https://mpa.co.uk/services/rd-tax-credits/

[1] Survey of 250 UK engineers conducted by The Engineer on behalf of MPA in September 2019

[2] R&D tax credits calculator: https://mpa.co.uk/services/rd-tax-credits/

[3] Office for National Statistics: ‘Engineering Industry in the UK’ (December 2018) – there are 721,940 active engineering enterprises in the UK. 485,143 (67%) of these are innovation active. 101,880 (21%) of these innovation active companies are not claiming R&D funding: //www.ons.gov.uk/businessindustryandtrade/business/activitysizeandlocation/adhocs/009383engineeringindustryintheuk

boring money
BankingCash ManagementTransactional and Investment Banking

New Charges Calculator Tackles ‘Shocking’ Lack of Clarity in the Investment Industry

boring money

New Charges Calculator Tackles ‘Shocking’ Lack of Clarity in the Investment Industry

Consumer investment site BoringMoney.co.uk has launched an independent fee calculator which provides investors with a single simple £ fee across 20 leading platforms and robo advisors.

According to research from the company’s 2019 Online Investing Report, two thirds of investors are not fully confident they understand what fees they are currently paying. Additional Boring Money testing shows that even those who feel confident often miscalculate in reality, as a result of complex fee structures and ambiguous additional charges.

Holly Mackay, CEO of Boring Money commented: “Trying to work out what we pay for investment services remains shockingly difficult. Customers tell us they want to see a single £ fee, but instead they have to build complex Excel spreadsheets with multiple inputs to try and work out what each provider costs.”

The Investment Fee Calculator – found at www.boringmoney.co.uk/calculator – enables investors and would-be investors to compare fees across 20 leading investment providers. In an industry first, the calculator also pulls in both customer ratings and the Boring Money rating so that customers can choose whether to focus on price alone, or take a broader view of the service.

Although designed to be simple to use – with pre-programmed assumptions for those who don’t know how many trades a year they make, or how exactly their investments are split between funds and shares – more experienced investors can override these assumptions to tailor the calculations more accurately.

Alongside the unveiling of the calculator, Boring Money is also launching a campaign for fairer fee disclosure.

Mackay says: “There’s endless talk and very little action. We know that customers want to see fees in simple £ amounts. We know they want to be able to compare.

“We are calling on the industry to improve this fundamental part of disclosure and acknowledge that transparency is not the same as clarity. We think every part of the chain – from platform to asset manager – should have some way for consumers to understand in simple £ terms what any given investment would cost. So they can make informed and confident decisions.” 

The campaign comes against the backdrop of the FCA’s recent Investment Platforms Market Study, in which the regulator very clearly stated that it expects the industry to show “progress in making charges more accessible and comparable for consumers who are shopping around”.

Major players in the industry have shown support for Boring Money’s cause.

Andy Bell, Chief Executive of AJ Bell Youinvest commented: “Seeing an investment platform’s charges in pounds and pence is significantly easier for people to understand than percentages. It’s something we’ve provided on our website for a while now and the Boring Money calculator is a good addition to research tools available to investors.”

Highlighting the importance of understanding fees, he added: “Price isn’t everything of course and people will also want to look at service and the reputation of the platform provider, but making sure you have the best value platform for your needs can save thousands of pounds over a long term investment.”

Press releases

Wealth & Finance International 2019 Investment Fund Awards

Investment Fund Awards Logo Long

United Kingdom, 2019- Wealth & Finance magazine have announced the winners of the 2019 Investment Fund Awards.

Knowing the routine struggles of contending with issues arising from regulations, market fluctuations, geopolitical upheavals and new government strategies can provide significant challenges to the fund industry, Wealth and Finance Magazine is proud to announce the commencement of the 2019 Investment Fund Awards, where the tireless efforts of fund professionals from across the globe are recognised and rewarded.

We are proud to showcase some of the greatest funds from across this diverse space and share an overview of how far they have come over the past twelve months.

Discussing the success of these winners, Awards Coordinator Edward Faulkner commented: “Congratulations to each and every one of this year’s Investment Fund Awards winners, I am incredibly proud of how far you’ve come and look forward to hearing of your future successes.”

To learn more about our deserving award winners and to gain insight into the working practices of the “best of the best”, please visit the Wealth & Finance website (https://www.wealthandfinance-news.com/awards/fund-awards/) where you can access the winners supplement.

ENDS

Notes to editors.

About Wealth & Finance International

Wealth & Finance International is a monthly publication dedicated to delivering high quality informative and up-to-the-minute global business content. It is published by AI Global Media Ltd, a publishing house that has reinvigorated corporate finance news and reporting.

Developed by a highly skilled team of writers, editors, business insiders and regional industry experts, Wealth & Finance International reports from every corner of the globe to give readers the inside track on the need-to-know news and issues affecting banking, finance, regulation, risk and wealth management in their region.

fintech
FX and PaymentTransactional and Investment Banking

New Financial Technologies Are Changing Lives

fintech

New Financial Technologies Are Changing Lives

By Ronald Miller, CEO, Paysend

Fintech is revolutionising traditional financial services and helping to change lives. PwC, the professional services firm, reports that the majority in the banking sector believe at least some part of their business is under threat by the fintech revolution. 

New fintech firms are disrupting traditional financial services and are giving birth to a whole new generation of starts ups.These start ups are changing the way we move money around the world with significant and positive economic and social implications.

Most financial services used to be the preserve of big businesses.  Now new technologies are automating processes, reducing start-up costs and making it possible for challenger brands to disrupt this industry. However, the changes we witness are creating far more than a shift of power from big business to new players in the sector. 

Fintech is giving consumers greater control of how they pay, hold and spend money.  It is creating a revolution in the way that funds move between people and countries. Global money transfers, where workers in one country send money to their families back home, is not a new phenomenon. 

However, World Bank figures show that there are now 270m people globally who live outside their home country, sending an estimated $689bn home.  This is almost ten times as much as it was in 1990.

Very often these transactions are life changing for those that send or receive them. Money earned in the UK often goes further in emerging economies.  Some of it goes to provide seed money for small enterprises and family businesses.

Global money transfers will soon overtake foreign direct investment as the biggest inflow of capital into developing countries.  In some countries, the money received will represents a third of their total GDP.

Technology has helped foster this dramatic rise. What was once a laborious, slow and expensive process to move money across borders is now simple, quick and low cost. Fintech has made it easier than ever to move money around the world. 

Over the last two years, at Paysend we’ve helped nearly 1.3m customers transfer money to more than 70 countries worldwide. We grow by each day as more people use our service for instant and flat-fee transfers. We believe in the power of technology to ease money transfers to allow more people to benefit from it and as a result imnprove their lives.

Ronald Millar is CEO at Paysend, the UK-based global fintech company, with a unique card-to-card money transfer technology, serving 1.3m customers worldwide.

telecoms
Cash ManagementFundsMarketsTax

UK Telecoms Industry Boasts Fastest Growing R&D Spend Of Any Sector

telecoms

UK Telecoms Industry Boasts Fastest Growing R&D Spend Of Any Sector

The telecoms industry is the UK’s fastest growing sector when it comes to spending on R&D, the latest ONS data has revealed.
Telecoms businesses increased their spending on research and development by £192m to £947m, according to the latest statistics for 2018 which were released recently.

This was a rise of 25.4%, taking it to a four-year high. However, the sector is still some way off its all-time high of £1.5bn set in 2007, analysis by R&D tax relief specialist Catax shows.

Total R&D spending by telecoms firms totalled £755m in 2017 and £797m in 2016.

The amount that UK businesses across all sectors have invested in R&D continues to grow, rising £1.4bn to £25bn in 2018 — up 5.8%. Manufacturing was associated with £16.3bn of R&D spending, up 4.7%, but pharmaceuticals remained the biggest product group with £4.5bn of R&D spending, up 3.3%.

The number of staff employed by UK businesses also continued to grow, rising 7.3% annually to exceed 250,000 full-time equivalents for the first time.

Mark Tighe, chief executive of R&D tax relief specialists Catax, said: “The telecoms industry is extremely important to the UK strategically and it is reassuring to see such growth in investment.

“There is still some way to go if this investment is to recover to levels seen before the financial crash, however, and it is vital this happens if Britain is to continue to be a key technological player on the world stage.

“More broadly, this is the second full year that Brexit Britain has shrugged off the political poison after the EU referendum and posted great gains in terms of R&D investment, running head and shoulders above the long-term average.

“For the first time in history a quarter of a million people nationwide are engaged full time in keeping the UK at the cutting edge. This is going to make a huge difference to Britain’s prospects outside the EU.

“The rate at which UK businesses are adding R&D staff to the workforce remains impressive, virtually matching the previous year with a rise of 7.3%.”

gold bar
CommoditiesFX and Payment

The Top Five Things You Need to Know About Gold

gold bar

The Top Five Things You Need to Know About Gold

Commodities are the lifeblood of commerce and economic growth. Daily FX, the leading portal for forex trading news, has built an interactive tool showing global commodity imports and exports over the last decade.

This unique tool allows traders to spot developments in the flow of commodities and the growth of both supply and demand while comparing the changes to critical economic indicators.

‘Global Commodities’ takes the form of a re-imagined 3D globe where the heights of countries rise and fall to show the import and export levels of a range of commodities over the last decade. The data visualisation allows users to switch views from a single commodity or market and show information relevant to that commodity or market’s performance.

John Kicklighter at DailyFX has used the tool to put together his top five things you need to know about gold:

1. Will the Federal Reserve System capitulate on policy tightening?

Gold is often seen as a credibility default swap on central banks and governments, and a further reverse course of Federal Reserve Monetary Policy in 2019 or beyond could help gold shine for investors.

2. Will inflation bring back the factor that gold has historically rallied behind?

Gold has long been praised as an effective hedge in times of inflation, and more so, times of hyper-inflation when prices skyrocket out of control. While that seems unlikely, an unexpected jump in general prices could align with a resurgence in the gold price. 

3. Could governments spiral out of control, leading to a hedge in gold as a haven amidst the political chaos?

Amidst noise and fears that the leaders of the state have lost their way is typically when gold does best. A recent example was the US Government shut down in 2011 when Gold traded near $2,000/oz. Recent Trade War rhetoric and other geopolitical themes seem to be fertile ground for gold investors.

4. Will central banks further ramp up gold purchases to hedge their Fiat Currency Reserves?

In late 2018 Eastern European central banks boosted their gold holdings following other purchases made by Russian and Chinese central banks as a source of stability. Estimates state that central banks hold 20% of all gold ever mined.

5. Could a bear market in stocks lead to the long-awaited boost in gold prices?

The rally in stocks since 2009 has not been kind to Gold, except at the start when the longevity of the stock market rally was in doubt. With the SPX500 near record highs and overall stock market volatility still low. Gold has had little reason to rise as a hedge, but a shock decrease in stocks and higher in volatility could give gold bulls the jolt they’ve long been without.

To learn more about Global Commodities visit: https://www.dailyfx.com/research/global-commodities